Up to this point we have been compiling Java source files and executing classes. In this lesson,
we will create Java archive files which store Java class files and can be executed by windowed
operating systems such as Microsoft Windows by double clicking on the JAR file.
Download this file of HelloWorldGUI and place it in a folder called helloWorldPackage.
Download this meta file for storing the main-class to execute when double clicking the JAR,
and place the file in the folder containing the helloWorldPackage folder.
Next, from the folder containing the helloWorldPackage folder execute the following command:
jar -cmfv HelloWorldGUI.mf HelloWorldGUI.jar helloWorldPackage/*
Now, if everything happened without error, there is a file named HelloWorldGUI.jar in the folder where
the jar command was executed that can be executed similar to a class file using the java command:
java -jar HelloWorldGUI.jar
The HelloWorldGUI.jar file can also be executed by double clicking on it.
The manifest file(the one ending with "mf") has TWO lines. The first is the words "Main-Class: " then
the class containing the "main" function that should be executed when the JAR is executed. The second
line is a blank line that is necessary for proper execution; just press the Enter key on your keyboard
after typing in the Main-Class name.
The "-cmfv" section of the jar command tool stands for the following:
c = create a jar
m = manifest will be specified: HelloWorldGUI.mf is the manifest
f = this is a file operation, an output file will be specified: HelloWorldGUI.jar is the JAR
v = verbose: print the output from processing this jar command to the standard output stream
The last argument is helloWorldPackage/* which translates to including all the files and folders in
helloWorldPackage in the JAR file.
Here is the command for viewing all the files in the JAR file:
jar -tfv HelloWorldGUI.jar
Try copying the file(using the operating system's copy mechanism) HelloWorldGUI.jar to a new folder
and navigate to that folder using the "cd" command in your command line console then once you have
arrived at that folder execute the following command to extract all of the files in the JAR file:
jar -xfv HelloWorldGUI.jar
Generally speaking, those are the three types of commands you will be executing with the jar command
line utility: archiving, viewing, and inflating.
The next source file is a utility I wrote for searching for a class file within a folder that contains
one or more JAR files. This utility is useful when downloading other programmer's libraries and your
not sure which JAR file contains which classes. The utility requires two command line arguments:
the file system's folder to search in and the name of the class to search for(do not include
the .class extension).
I am including another source file for a utility that will programmatically inflate all of the
contents of a JAR file. This utility is useful when you want to allow the user to inflate
the JAR without knowing the details of the jar command line utility by simply double clicking
on the JAR file.
Download JarFileInflator.mf Manifest File
You can test out the JarFileInflator utility by navigating to the folder where you have downloaded
the HelloWorld.java file and copying the class file for JarFileInflator and the manifest
file JarFileInflator.mf listed above to the same folder as HelloWorld.java then executing the
jar -cmfv JarFileInflator.mf HelloWorld.jar JarFileInflator.class HelloWorld.java
Now you should see a new file called HelloWorld.jar . Copy this file to an empty directory and try
double clicking on the JAR file. The contents of the JAR file should inflate into the directory
containing the JAR file.
In this lesson, you learned how to use the jar command line utility: archiving, viewing, and inflating.
You practiced with creating a simple manifest file that can be used to set the Main-Class that is
executed when a JAR file is double clicked.